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LTC Stephen F.
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Thank you my friend SGT (Join to see) for making us aware that Russian author Ivan Alexandrovich [son of Alexander] Goncharov died at the age of 79 on September 27, 1891.

Writers and Censors in the Russian Empire: The Case of Ivan Goncharov
When Ivan Goncharov was finishing Oblomov in late 1850ies, he was officially employed at St. Petersburg Censorship Committee. Goncharov’s career as a censor lasted for almost 10 years and earned him high ranks in bureaucratic system of the Russian Empire and solid wage, but had a negative effect on his literary reputation. Several Goncharov’s contemporaries considered it immoral or at least not appropriate for a writer to become censor. Still, Goncharov himself accepted his dubious position not only because of possible career advancement. He seemed to consider himself not part of a repressive system of the government, but an intermediary between the state and the society, the latter of which represented by literature. The case of Goncharov’s service as censor and his ultimate failure to mediate between writers and state officials reveals the complexity of relations between the public sphere and the state in Imperial Russia.
Kirill Zubkov is Associate Professor at Higher School of Economics (Moscow) and research fellow at the Institute of Russian Literature (St. Petersburg). He graduated from St. Petersburg State University. His research interests include the institution of Russian literary criticism, the history of censorship in the Russian Empire and Russian drama of 19th century. Zubkov is the author of several articles and publications, including a critical edition of Russian 19th century literary criticism “Sovremennik protiv Moskvityanina”. He is also one of the editors of Complete Works and Letters by Goncharov."
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QyUhsJ6cO9M

Images:
1. Portrait of Goncharov by Ivan Kramskoi, 1865
2. Portrait of Ivan Goncharov by Kirill Gorbunov, 1847
3. Top row (from left)- Leo Tolstoy, Dmitry Grigorovich, Bottom row (from left)- Ivan Goncharov, Ivan Turgenev, Alexander Druzhinin, and Alexander Ostrovsky
4. Portrait of Ivan Goncharov by Ivan Kramskoi (1874)

Biographies;
1. russiapedia.rt.com/prominent-russians/literature/ivan-goncharov
2. enotes.com/topics/ivan-goncharov

1. Background from {[https://russiapedia.rt.com/prominent-russians/literature/ivan-goncharov/]}
Prominent Russians: Ivan Goncharov written by Anna Yudina, RT
June 18, 1812 – September 27, 1891
The Russian novelist Ivan Goncharov is one of the greatest realists of Russian literature. His novel "Oblomov" and other works are considered classics of Russian fiction.

Childhood
Ivan Goncharov was born into the well-to-do family of a grain merchant on 18 June 1812 in Simbirsk (now Ulyanovsk). Although the family background was of the merchant class, young Ivan was brought up in the patriarchal atmosphere of Russian manor life. Goncharov's father died in 1819 leaving Ivan to be raised by his godfather, Nikolai Tregubov, a liberal-minded aristocrat and a former mariner. It was Tregubov who developed in the boy a love for novels about traveling, journeys and adventures – young Goncharov hung upon his stepfather’s lips when the latter recalled his sea voyages and all the difficulties he had to stem.

Education
Goncharov received an excellent private education. At the age of eight he was sent to a private school, where he stayed for two years until, at the age of 10, he was sent to a private boarding school in Moscow, specializing in commerce. Later, in August 1831, Goncharov successfully entered the Moscow State University, where he studied in the department of literature. Goncharov was quite unsociable and viewed politics with a certain skepticism and therefore did not join any of the student circles that dedicated much of their time to discussing philosophical issues and socio-political matters.
After graduating from the university in 1834 Goncharov returned to Simbirsk and stayed there for nearly a year, serving in the governor’s secretariat. But life far from the city seemed boring, and Goncharov soon moved to Saint Petersburg. The first ten years in the capital were tranquil and longsome – Goncharov had to serve as a petty official at the foreign trade office. Still, these years turned out to be quite useful, as the writer had plenty of time and opportunity to watch the clerks and officers whose lives he would later describe in his works.

Beginning of literary career
In 1838 and 1839 almanacs of the literary society headed by Nikolay Maikov (Goncharov became acquainted with Maikov’s sons - the poet Apollon Maikov and his brother Valerian - who encouraged Goncharov in his writing aspirations while working at the foreign trade office in St. Petersburg) published Goncharov’s first romantic verses and novelettes. Later, in the spring of 1846 Goncharov met Belinsky – one of the most renowned Russian literary critics of all times. The latter had a great influence upon the young writer.
Goncharov's first novel, “Obyknovennaya Istoriya” or “A Common Story,” which dealt with the conflicts between the excessive romanticism of a young Russian nobleman freshly arrived in Saint Petersburg from the provinces and the emerging commercial class of the capital with its sober pragmatism, was published in 1847 in the periodical “The Contemporary.” It was a true sensation in Russia, thanks to the young writer’s talent and praise from the critic Belinsky.

Round-the-world journey
Between 1852 and 1855 Goncharov served as a secretary to the legendary Navy Admiral Yevfimy Putyatin. The writer took part in the historic Russo-Japanese Treaty of 1855, serving as the official interpreter between the Russian and Japanese governments. At that time Goncharov made voyages aboard the Russian Navy frigate "Pallada," visiting many countries in Europe, Africa and Asia. When he returned to Russia he wrote a travelogue describing the journey. It was published in 1858 and presented a chronicle of his three-year voyage; “Frigate Pallada” made a splash in Tsarist Russia.

“Oblomov”
After returning to Saint Petersburg in 1856 Goncharov became a government censor - a post that earned him criticism and mistrust among many of his contemporaries. Although his politics as a censor were clearly conservative, when it came to reviewing Russian journals and almanacs, he tried to use his position to allow many important and liberal works of literature into print, including works by Fyodor Dostoyevsky and Alexander Herzen.
Goncharov’s next book, “Oblomov,” published in 1859, made its author a living classic. The novel described a man who was too lazy and inert to live; the work deals not only with the social phenomenon of inertia, but also with the Russian national character. Still, “Oblomov” wasn’t easy to write – Goncharov spent several years producing sketches, throwing them away and rewriting. The novel was hailed as a masterpiece and among others Fyodor Dostoyevsky considered Goncharov a literary equal. From the figure of Oblomov (the main character of the novel) derives the frequently used Russian term “oblomovshchina” meaning backwardness, inertia. “Oblomov” was even compared to Shakespeare's “Hamlet.” The novel was adapted into the eponymous film. In modern Western literature, it is said to have inspired Samuel Beckett's play “Waiting for Godot.”

Last years
In 1860, when censorship became even more severe than before, Goncharov retired from his government position. But some time later he was again asked to take a position as a censor, which he accepted. He did not quit definitively until 1867.
Goncharov wrote numerous short stories, critiques, essays and memoirs and continued traveling outside of Russia, but remained known primarily for his novels. During the 1860s Goncharov was part of the St. Petersburg cultural milieu.
The third most famous novel by Goncharov, “Obryv” (“The Precipice”), appeared in 1868 though it was started in 1849. As the writer had to work and earn a living, he could not dedicate all his time to writing and the work on the novel slowed and was resumed year after year. Goncharov felt he was getting older, causing him to put the work aside. At times Goncharov felt so pessimistic he thought he wouldn’t be able to finish “Obryv.” The last novel of the writer described the rivalry between three men, a nihilist, an idealist and a commonsensical neighbor, for the love of a mysterious woman. The work, however, did not attract much initial attention. Only several years later did the public begin to show interest in “Obryv.” With the help of his three most famous novels Goncharov is believed to mirror a certain step in the historical development of Russia.
On 12 September 1891 Goncharov caught a cold. The illness developed rapidly and three days later, on 15 September, Ivan Goncharov died of pneumonia at the age of 79. He was buried in Saint Petersburg in the Alexander Nevsky Monastery.
Ivan Goncharov never married, he was said to be shy with women and his love affairs remained a mystery.
Goncharov’s three major works, commonly known as the “Three O’s” (“Obyknovennaya Istoriya,” “Oblomov,” “Obryv”), are included in the Russian school curriculum and reissued in massive printings.

Mental health
Goncharov was said to have shown certain signs of mental instability. For example, he accused Flaubert of getting the idea for “Sentimental Education” from Turgenev, who, in his turn, had heard it from Goncharov. Goncharov's unfounded accusation of plagiarism against Ivan Turgenev caused a scandal in the literary world. Goncharov lived most of his life in sedentary seclusion."


2. Background from {[https://www.enotes.com/topics/ivan-goncharov}]
Ivan Goncharov was born Ivan Alexandrovich Goncharov on June 18, 1812, in remote Simbirsk (now Ulyanovsk) on a country estate of the type featured in his novels. He was born into a well-to-do merchant family living the manorial life of Russian gentry. After losing his merchant father at age seven, he was reared in the old tradition by his strong-willed mother and her landowning companion. This heritage of easygoing manor life and progressive mercantile activity characterizes Goncharov’s own outlook and that of his major fictional characters.
In 1822 Goncharov went to Moscow to study at the School of Commerce, where he became seriously interested in literature. Encouraged to follow in his father’s footsteps, he languished for eight years in a school of commerce without graduating. He left the school in 1830 and entered the philological department of Moscow University, graduated in 1834, and began to work as a secretary to the governor of Simbirsk. He entered the literary world as a tutor in the culturally sophisticated Maikov family, using this experience to produce his first poems and stories.
In 1835 Goncharov left for St. Petersburg to work as a translator in the ministry of finance. Although he was, according to Leo Tolstoy, a thorough townsman, Goncharov demonstrated in his novels a profound concern for the disintegration of gentry traditions. His first novel, A Common Story, published when Goncharov was thirty-five years old, traces the disillusioning sentimental education of an idealist who makes the transition from an idyllic country estate to St. Petersburg and becomes a smug opportunist.
The success of his first novel, A Common Story, did not alleviate Goncharov’s self-doubt, and he remained fettered to extraliterary activity. A worldwide sailing tour on behalf of the trade ministry in the 1850’s yielded material for his travel sketches. Between 1852 and 1854 Goncharov took part in an expedition to Japan on the military frigate Pallas. The cycle of essays The Voyage of the Frigate Pallada gives a brilliant, realistic account of this trip. On his return from the expedition Goncharov worked as a censor, an editor, and a member of the Council of the Press Affairs. In 1859 his second novel, Oblomov, was published. The hero, who gives the novel its title, is a cultured, intelligent man of generous impulses who is nevertheless hopelessly slothful and ineffectual—indeed for a number of pages he cannot even get out of bed—and who sinks slowly and undramatically into the depths of what he himself calls “Oblomovism.” This characterization was immediately recognized as representing a significant type in Russian society, and the name Oblomov became proverbial. In his autobiographical essay “Luchshe pozdno, chem nikogda” (better late than never) Goncharov himself remarked that he intended to present the lethargy of Russia in contrast to the ferment of foreign influences; the author’s sympathy, however, is obviously for Oblomov.
Goncharov’s rise to fame was slow, and he was trapped in a civil service career spanning more than thirty years, almost half of which was spent uneventfully as a translator in the finance ministry. Goncharov’s private existence turned out to be equally monotonous. Although he was attracted to a number of women, his courtships were not successful, and he never married. The frustrations of his relationships with women are prominently mirrored in all three novels.
The same period brought an appointment to the literary censorship board, a result of Czar Alexander II’s relaxed attitude. Goncharov followed a middle-of-the-road philosophy in this post, often enraging progressive writers, whose harsh judgments of conservative ideals he would not accept. He secured his own literary fame with Oblomov but felt too insecure to devote himself exclusively to literature. After a brief try at editing the official newspaper Severnaya pchela in the 1860’s, he returned to a censorial post in the influential Press Council. His civic duties earned for him the Order of Vladimir, third class, prior to retirement in 1868.
Meanwhile, Goncharov’s mental state had gradually deteriorated. Ivan Turgenev’s literary success easily eclipsed that of Goncharov, and when Turgenev’s Dvoryanskoe gnezdo (1859; Liza: Or, “A Nest of Nobles,” 1869; better known as A Nest of Gentlefolk, 1959) superseded Oblomov in critical acclaim, Goncharov accused his rival of plagiarism. Arbitration found Turgenev innocent, and the writers reconciled, but in private, the increasingly neurotic Goncharov continued the accusations, venting on Turgenev all the frustrations of his own unsatisfactory existence.
Goncharov worked slowly on another novel, The Precipice, in which he again shows a talented, intelligent man doomed to remain a dilettante, as well as a young man torn between old and new values. The book contains, besides, a sympathetic portrait of an old-style grandmother, and an unsympathetic portrait of a contemporary nihilist.
Philosophically, Goncharov moved from a modestly progressive stance to a firm defense of the traditional values of the landed gentry. These sentiments found expression in The Precipice, in which moral regeneration is embedded in the unchanging order of provincial Russia.
After retiring in 1867 he wrote reminiscence, criticism, and a few stories; in the 1870’s a curious book appeared, An Uncommon Story, which, when it was finally published in 1924, showed Goncharov to have been suffering from the delusion that Ivan Turgenev and others had stolen his ideas.
Goncharov died on September 15, 1891, a stranger to the swiftly moving social currents of the latter part of the century. His later published works chronicle his artistic decline. A complete recluse, he burned his letters and manuscripts. He spent his final days not unlike his major hero, Oblomov, in a St. Petersburg flat, looked after by a kindly woman and her children.

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LTC Stephen F.
LTC Stephen F.
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Neskolko dney iz zhizni I.I. Oblomova (1980) Oblomov Türkçe Altyazılı and English Subtitles
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sgmy6Ke_xQY

Images:
1. Ivan Goncharov
2. Ivan Goncharov 'Memories are the height of poetry only when they are memories of happiness. When they graze wounds over which scars have formed they become an aching pain.'
3. Ivan Goncharov 'It is a trick among the dishonest to offer sacrifices that are not needed, or not possible, to avoid making those that are required.'
4. Ivan Goncharov 'All his anxiety resolved itself into a sigh and dissolved into apathy and drowsiness.'

Biographies:
1. imdb.com/name/nm0327199/bio
2. biography.yourdictionary.com/ivan-aleksandrovich-goncharov]

1. Background from {[https://www.imdb.com/name/nm0327199/bio}]
Ivan Goncharov was a classic Russian writer whose novel 'Oblomov' was adapted to film by director Nikita Mikhalkov.
He was born Ivan Aleksandrovich Goncharov on June 18, 1812, in Simbirsk, Russian Empire (now Ulyanovsk, Russia). His father, a wealthy merchant, died when Goncharov was only seven, and he was brought up by his Godfather, Nikolai Tregubov, a retired Navy sailor. Goncharov received an excellent private education at the home of his parents. From the age of 10 he studied at a private boarding school in Moscow, specializing in commerce. From 1830 - 1834 Goncharov attended Moscow University, having such schoolmates a Mikhail Lermontov, Alexander Gertsen, and Ivan Turgenev among other distinguished Russians. Upon his graduation from Moscow University in 1834, Goncharov served as a government official for the next thirty years. He specialized in translations of foreign correspondence with the Russian government.

Between 1852 and 1855 Goncharov served as a secretary to the legendary Navy Admiral Yevfimy Putyatin. Goncharov took part in the historic Russo-Japanese Treaty of 1855, serving as the official interpreter between the Russian and Japanese governments. At that time Goncharov made voyages aboard the Russian Navy frigate "Pallada" ('Pallas'), visiting many countries in Europe, Africa, and Asia. Upon his return to Russia, Goncharov eventually experienced disillusionment with the Russian social and economic traditions. His 1858 publication of his travelogue, a chronicle of his three-year journey, became a sensation in the Tsarist Russia. His next book, Oblomov', made Goncharov a classic, and was praised by such figures as Fyodor Dostoevsky, and others.

In 1867 Goncharov fell under pressure for his independent views, and retired from his position as a government interpreter and censor. He eventually became a professional writer, living in St. Petersburg, Russia. He wrote numerous short stories, critiques, essays and memoirs, and continued traveling outside of Russia. During the 1860s Goncharov was part of the St. Petersburg cultural milieu, albeit his independent political position and his advanced and original views on Russian reality were causing him problems with the rigid hard-liners in the Russian establishment. He eventually suffered from negative criticism that was orchestrated by his conservative opponents. Goncharov struggled for twenty years writing his third big novel, 'Obryv' (aka.. The Precipice), dealing with romantic rivalry of three men, and sporting a veiled critique of disintegrating Russian society. Ivan Goncharov never married, he died if pneumonia in his home in St. Petersburg, Russia, and was laid to rest in the writer's corner of cemetery in St. Petersburg, Russia.

Ivan Goncharov's most important novel, 'Oblomov', was published in 1859, and became widely successful in Russia. It was even compared with the Shakespeare's Hamlet, albeit the title character, Oblomov, is giving the answer "No!" to the question "To be or not to be?". The story of Oblomov and Russians around him is dealing with a conundrum of problems of social and economic nature that are typical of Russia. The novel was adapted into the eponymous film, Oblomov (1980), by director Nikita Mikhalkov, starring Oleg Tabakov in the title role.

Ivan Goncharov's writings are included in the Russian school curriculum and reissued in massive printings.

Background from {[https://biography.yourdictionary.com/ivan-aleksandrovich-goncharov]}
"Ivan Aleksandrovich Goncharov Facts
The Russian novelist Ivan Aleksandrovich Goncharov (1812-1891) is one of the great realists of Russian literature. His novel "Oblomov" is a classic of Russian fiction.

Ivan Goncharov was born of a well-to-do family. Although the family background was of the merchant class, he was brought up in the patriarchal atmosphere of Russian manor life. After leaving the University of Moscow, he entered the civil service, where he labored patiently for many years without conspicuous success. His rise to literary prominence came in 1847, when he published his first novel, A Common Story. Hailed enthusiastically by the great Russian critic Vissarion Belinsky, this work dealt with the transformation of a young provincial idealist into a somewhat vulgar and practical young man.

In 1849 Goncharov published "The Dream of Oblomov," a short sketch that became the core of his greatest novel. In 1853 he accompanied an expedition on a 2-year voyage to the Far East. He did not enjoy the trip, but he was a perceptive reporter and his account of the journey appeared as The Frigate Pallas in 1856.

In 1858 Goncharov finished the novel Oblomov, and it was published the following year. Oblomov has become an archetypal character, the embodiment of vegetable comfort, of disinclination to action, and of lassitude. He is the dreamer rather than the doer, and he is contrasted with Shtolz, the new man, the energetic, self-willed man, who unsuccessfully attempts to inspire Oblomov to a more active existence. As a superfluous man, Oblomov is part of a gallery of great Russian fictional creations, which includes Aleksandr Pushkin's Eugene Onegin, Mikhail Lermontov's Pechorin, and Ivan Turgenev's Rudin. The word Oblomovshchina (Oblomovism) has passed into the Russian language to signify a special kind of high-minded indolence.

Goncharov's last important novel, The Ravine, appeared in 1869. The theme of the novel, as in A Common Story, has to do with the new and the old, the ideal and the useful. The novel expresses what is perhaps the most important conflict in Goncharov's work: the conflict between a love for the patriarchal, leisurely, fixed ways of old Russia and an interest and curiosity in the liberal and radical elements that were breaking through the crust of old Russia.

Goncharov also wrote an autobiographical apologia, Better Late than Never (1870, published in 1879), in which he attempted to prove to the younger generation that he understood the spirit of his age as well as they. Among his other publications are My University Reminiscences (1870); A Million Torments (1872), a work of criticism; and Notes on Belinsky's Personality (1874). A posthumous work entitled An Uncommon Story came to light in the 1920s and confirmed the psychopathic side of his personality; it is an account of imagined plots against him and imagined attempts by others to plagiarize his work.

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SPC Margaret Higgins
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Dear David, I thank you; for your/this history post. SGT (Join to see)
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SGT David A. 'Cowboy' Groth
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Thank you for the great literary history share brother SGT (Join to see)
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