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An Army and Marine captain generally commands company-sized units. When given such a command, they bear the title company commander. Captains also instruct at service schools and combat training centers and are often staff officers at the battalion level. Marine captains also serve as officer selection officers, commanding recruiting stations for commissioned officers.
An Air Force captain's authority varies by group assignment. In an operations group, senior captains may be flight commanders while more junior captains may be heads of departments. In the maintenance or logistics and mission support groups they are almost always flight commanders. In the medical group, captains usually have limited administrative and command responsibility as captain is frequently the entry level rank for most medical officers and dental officers.
In Army and Air Force medical units, captain is the entry-level rank for those possessing a medical degree, or a doctorate in a healthcare profession (including pharmacists, optometrists, veterinarians, Physician Assistant, dentists, among others). In Army and Air Force Judge Advocate General corps, lawyers with a Juris Doctor degree and membership in the bar of at least one U.S. state or territory are appointed captains, or first lieutenants promotable upon completion of initial entry training.
MARSOCs fourteen-man Marine Special Operations Teams (MSOT) and U.S. Army Special Forces Operational Detachments Alpha are commanded by a captain.
The photo above is of (then) Captain Benjamin Middendorf in Marjah Afghansitan in 2014. He was awarded the Leftwich Award trophy, for Outstanding Leadership for his actions while deployed with Golf Co., 2d Battalion, Fifth Marine Regiment, in the Helmand province of Afghanistan.
Best part of holding this rank
You get to lead, you get hassled less, you kind of know what you're doing now.
Worst part of holding this rank
You're about to be a Major.
Advice on how to be selected for this rank
Be a good Lieutenant.